Recipe for Success - Lessons Learnt from using xAPI within the Connected Learning Analytics Toolkit

TitleRecipe for Success - Lessons Learnt from using xAPI within the Connected Learning Analytics Toolkit
Publication TypeBook Chapter
AuthorsBakharia A, Kitto K, Pardo A, Gasevic D, Dawson S
Abstract

An ongoing challenge for Learning Analytics research has been the scalable derivation of user interaction data from multiple technologies. The complexities associated with this challenge are increasing as educators embrace an ever growing number of social and content-related technologies. The Experience API (xAPI) alongside the development of user specific record stores has been touted as a means to address this challenge, but a number of subtle considerations must be made when using xAPI in Learning Analytics. This paper provides a general overview to the complexities and challenges of using xAPI in a general systemic analytics solution-called the Connected Learning Analytics (CLA) toolkit. The importance of design is emphasised, as is the notion of common vocabularies and xAPI Recipes. Early decisions about vocabularies and structural relationships between statements can serve to either facilitate or handicap later analytics solutions. The CLA toolkit case study provides us with a way of examining both the strengths and the weaknesses of the current xAPI specification, and we conclude with a proposal for how xAPI might be improved by using JSON-LD to formalise Recipes in a machine readable form.